Amphibians and Reptiles of Louisiana

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2015 Checklist of Amphibians and Reptiles of Louisiana (PDF)

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Class Amphibia

Order Anura (Frogs and Toads)

Order Caudata (Salamanders)

Class Reptilia

Order Crocodilia (Alligators and Crocodiles)

Order Squamata: Suborder Lacertilia (Lizards)

Oeschner. "it's something that helps aid in reducing the inflammation and getting the guy back, but they don't always work. It's not like you get one and you're going to feel great right away. I wish it were that easy. " but an injection can help within a couple of days — if the doctor's aim is good. "my first couple didn't make a difference," zimmerman says. "they've done it a million times so they're pretty good at it, but they've got to get the right spot. " zimmerman says a numbing agent masks the pain for the first day, "and then you start to feel better. It's more feeling the movement to be able to do the things you know you can do. viagra online no prescriptions " cortisone differs from anabolic steroids in that cortisone does not return the body to a non-injured level. buy viagra It is a medical treatment that relieves or masks pain rather than heal. That makes it legal but creates other issues. *** three or four shots a year matthew matava, head physician for the nfl's st. Louis rams and team physician for the nhl's st. Louis blues, says there is a general rule when it comes to the number of injections: no more than three to four in a year. "i suppose there are always exceptions to any rule," says matava. "these are guidelines. buying generic viagra They're sort of based on expert opinion as opposed to any hard and fast scientific data consisting of randomized, controlled trials. viagra cost "certainly if you start getting into six to eight shots into a joint, that's where it becomes problematic. viagra vs viagra differences and similarities '' the biggest concern, says matava: cartilage damage, or rupturing a tendon. Groeschner says one danger of repetitive use is weakening cartilage in the joints. does viagra last longer than 36 hours Research by massachusetts institute of technology and the mayo clinic, among others, has shown cortisone can be even more detrimental if used on ligaments and tendons. Zimmerman says that was part of the information he learned while deciding whether to try the injections. "and it's masking pain. If something's hurt and you're masking pain," zimmerman says, "sooner or later you're going to have to do something a little more than a cortisone shot. " for players and teams in a playoff series or the struggle to get there, there often seems like little choice. Mccann, who suffered with shoulder issues that eventually forced him to miss atlanta's wild-card playoff loss to st. Louis, was skeptical of cortisone at first, chalking up his physical woes to the normal wear and tear. viagra online pills "we all pretty much wake up every day sore," he says. viagra used to treat pulmonary hypertension "the shot really did h. Order Squamata: Suborder Serpentes (Snakes)

Order Testudines (Turtles)

*All scientific and standard English names in these lists are the names recognized by Crother (2012) for the full species. For subspecies information, click on the individual links to the species of interest. For example, in Louisiana, we have the Eastern American Toad (Anaxyrus americanus americanus). However, on the lists as well as the names on the parish record maps there will be just American Toad (Anaxyrus americanus).

Crother (2008) states that it is difficult to discern what subspecies to place our introduced Brown Anole, Anolis sagrei, as there is evidence of multiple introductions from Cuba and perhaps the Bahamas. I have chosen to not assign a subspecies until there is further clarification.

Although some sources may include the Texas Horned Lizard, Phrynosoma cornutum, in the native fauna of Louisiana, I have chosen not to do so here. Due to the popularity of the species in the pet trade, it is frequently released well outside its native range, especially in large urban areas, and is likely the explanation behind the Louisiana records (Dundee and Rossman 1989). If an established population is found within the state, I will then include the species in this checklist like I have other introduced species.

Dundee and Rossman (1989) included the Alabama Map Turtle (Graptemys pulchra) as native to Louisiana in the eastern Florida Parishes. However, recent research has shown that the formerly reported range reflects a complex of several species largely confined to distinct river catchments (Moulis 2009). The Alabama Map Turtle is thus no longer recognized as native to Louisiana, and is confined to Alabama and extreme northwestern Georgia.

The Pascagoula Map Turtle (Graptemys gibbonsi) was formerly recognized as occurring within the Pearl River drainage basin of Louisiana. However, Ennen et al. (2010) concluded based on genetic and morphological evidence that this form was different enough from the populations in the Pascagoula River drainage basin of Mississippi to warrant its own species. Thus, the new name they proposed was the Pearl River Map Turtle, Graptemys pearlensis. Therefore, this new species is recognized as native to the state and the Pascagoula Map Turtle is no longer recognized as being a resident of Louisiana.

Literature Cited

Crother, B. I. 2012. Scientific and Standard English Names of Amphibians and Reptiles
          of North America North of Mexico, pp. 1-101. SSAR Herpetological Circular 39.

Dundee, H. A., and D. A. Rossman. 1989. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Louisiana.
          Louisiana State University Press, Baton Rouge.

Ennen, J.R., J.E. Lovich, B.R. Kreiser, W. Selman, and C.P. Qualls. 2010. Genetic and
          morphological variation between populations of the Pascagoula Map Turtle (Graptemys
) in the Pearl and Pascagoula Rivers with a description of a new species. 
          Chelonian Conservation and Biology 9:98-113.

Moulis, R. A. 2008. Alabama Map Turtle, Graptemys pulchra. Pp. 48-484.In:Jensen, J. B., C. 
          D. Camp, W. Gibbons, and M. J. Elliott (eds.). Amphibians and Reptiles of Georgia. 
          University of Georgia Press, Athens.

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